You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. Don’t just keep repeating “Smith says.” There is a wide choice of such verbs in English. Use a dictionary to check that you have chosen a verb with the nuance you intend.
Here are some grammatical patterns to follow in using these verbs: Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
|discover||Louboutin Smoking Leopard Spike Pony Embroidered Mi Loafers Christian Flats Studded Corazon doubt||emphasize||explain||find|
|object||observe||point out||prove||Spike Loafers Embroidered Flats Leopard Pony Louboutin Studded Mi Corazon Christian Smoking reveal|
- Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
- Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
- Singh infers that both states are essential.
Note that these verbs all differ in meaning-they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the verb argue in sample sentence (a) indicates your judgement that the author’s conclusion is based on evidence and reasoning, but that other conclusions might be possible. The verb Loafers Studded Flats Leopard Smoking Spike Pony Corazon Louboutin Christian Embroidered Mi demonstrate in sentence (b) indicates your judgement that the researchers’ evidence and reasoning are so convincing that no other conclusion is possible.
Beware of using the verbs discuss or express followed by that. For example, it is incorrect to write, “The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.” You can, however, write the following: “The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.” N.B.: Verbs in this category may also appear in a subordinate clause beginning with As:
- Christian Embroidered Smoking Loafers Studded Flats Mi Spike Pony Louboutin Leopard Corazon As Da Souza arguesD D844GD D WISTREY METAL DORE Geox wp4xtqSn, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.
- Mi Flats Embroidered Smoking Spike Louboutin Leopard Christian Corazon Pony Loafers Studded As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
|applaud||blame||Mi Pony Flats Smoking Christian Spike Corazon Loafers Louboutin Leopard Embroidered Studded censure||criticize||disparage|
- Smith criticized Jones forblack A Burgundy D BROOGUE Geox DONNA D842UA YFvwxa his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).
- Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.
- Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
|appraise||assess||characterize||Embroidered Flats Leopard Smoking Mi Loafers Corazon Studded Christian Spike Pony Louboutin class||classify|
- Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.
- Smith Flats Embroidered Studded Louboutin Spike Loafers Smoking Christian Leopard Mi Corazon Pony identifies the open window Mi Leopard Christian Pony Louboutin Corazon Flats Studded Embroidered Loafers Smoking Spike as a source of contamination.
- Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.
Revised by Rebecca Smollett, Margaret Procter, and Jerry Plotnick.