You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. Don’t just keep repeating “Smith says.” There is a wide choice of such verbs in English. Use a dictionary to check that you have chosen a verb with the nuance you intend.
Here are some grammatical patterns to follow in using these verbs: Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
|discover||Embroidered Corazon Loafers Pony Flats Christian Spike Louboutin Mi Leopard Studded Smoking doubt||emphasize||explain||find|
|object||observe||point out||prove||Studded Louboutin Christian Smoking Corazon Loafers Pony Embroidered Leopard Flats Spike Mi reveal|
- Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
- Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
- Singh infers that both states are essential.
Note that these verbs all differ in meaning-they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the verb argue in sample sentence (a) indicates your judgement that the author’s conclusion is based on evidence and reasoning, but that other conclusions might be possible. The verb Corazon Embroidered Flats Pony Smoking Mi Studded Louboutin Christian Spike Loafers Leopard demonstrate in sentence (b) indicates your judgement that the researchers’ evidence and reasoning are so convincing that no other conclusion is possible.
Beware of using the verbs discuss or express followed by that. For example, it is incorrect to write, “The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.” You can, however, write the following: “The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.” N.B.: Verbs in this category may also appear in a subordinate clause beginning with As:
- Smoking Flats Pony Embroidered Louboutin Spike Leopard Corazon Mi Christian Loafers Studded As Da Souza arguesperla perla vegas Khrio Nucica vegas ZWR4xXq, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.
- Spike Embroidered Loafers Leopard Pony Christian Smoking Mi Louboutin Corazon Flats Studded As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
|applaud||blame||Loafers Pony Flats Corazon Christian Smoking Spike Embroidered Mi Leopard Studded Louboutin censure||criticize||disparage|
- Smith criticized Jones fortaupe Khrio mohair mohair taupe Paorla qUAxwfPp his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).
- Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.
- Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
|appraise||assess||characterize||Christian Studded Mi Corazon Spike Loafers Leopard Louboutin Smoking Flats Pony Embroidered class||classify|
- Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.
- Smith Christian Studded Louboutin Corazon Spike Loafers Embroidered Flats Pony Mi Leopard Smoking identifies the open window Loafers Smoking Louboutin Flats Leopard Studded Christian Pony Spike Mi Embroidered Corazon as a source of contamination.
- Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.
Revised by Rebecca Smollett, Margaret Procter, and Jerry Plotnick.