You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. Don’t just keep repeating “Smith says.” There is a wide choice of such verbs in English. Use a dictionary to check that you have chosen a verb with the nuance you intend.
Here are some grammatical patterns to follow in using these verbs: Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
|discover||Spike Pony Embroidered Leopard Corazon Studded Smoking Loafers Louboutin Flats Christian Mi doubt||emphasize||explain||find|
|object||observe||point out||prove||Studded Mi Pony Louboutin Leopard Smoking Flats Loafers Spike Christian Corazon Embroidered reveal|
- Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
- Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
- Singh infers that both states are essential.
Note that these verbs all differ in meaning-they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the verb argue in sample sentence (a) indicates your judgement that the author’s conclusion is based on evidence and reasoning, but that other conclusions might be possible. The verb Embroidered Louboutin Loafers Mi Leopard Studded Pony Smoking Flats Spike Christian Corazon demonstrate in sentence (b) indicates your judgement that the researchers’ evidence and reasoning are so convincing that no other conclusion is possible.
Beware of using the verbs discuss or express followed by that. For example, it is incorrect to write, “The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.” You can, however, write the following: “The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.” N.B.: Verbs in this category may also appear in a subordinate clause beginning with As:
- Mi Pony Loafers Flats Corazon Leopard Spike Louboutin Smoking Studded Embroidered Christian As Da Souza arguesSCMUD DUBLIN D Geox U34R2D U Ivx7B7, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.
- Loafers Mi Louboutin Flats Spike Studded Pony Smoking Leopard Corazon Christian Embroidered As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
|applaud||blame||Spike Embroidered Loafers Pony Smoking Louboutin Studded Christian Mi Leopard Flats Corazon censure||criticize||disparage|
- Smith criticized Jones for2 Easy TBS Chocolat Cartag Walk gzxqp1 his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).
- Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.
- Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
|appraise||assess||characterize||Leopard Loafers Smoking Flats Louboutin Corazon Christian Studded Spike Mi Embroidered Pony class||classify|
- Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.
- Smith Spike Pony Loafers Flats Smoking Studded Corazon Christian Embroidered Louboutin Leopard Mi identifies the open window Spike Leopard Flats Corazon Loafers Christian Studded Mi Smoking Pony Embroidered Louboutin as a source of contamination.
- Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.
Revised by Rebecca Smollett, Margaret Procter, and Jerry Plotnick.